What theory explains the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria? (2023)

Asked by: Marietta Torp

Score: 4.8/5(6 votes)

Die Endosymbiontentheoriestates that mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells were once aerobic bacteria (prokaryotes) that were replaced by large anaerobic bacteria (prokaryotes). This theory explains the origin of eukaryotic cells.

What theory explains the origin of chloroplasts and the mitochondrial quizlet?

Die Endosymbiontentheorieexplains how cells got their chloroplasts and mitochondria.

What is the theory about the origin of chloroplasts?

Die Endosymbiontentheoriedeals with the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts, two eukaryotic organelles that have bacterial properties. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are believed to have evolved from symbiotic bacteria, specifically alpha-proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, respectively.

What explains the endosymbiont theory?

The endosymbiont theory explains thisThe evolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Before mitochondria and chloroplasts were organelles in a cell, they were prokaryotic cells free to be taken up by eukaryotic cells. ... After being taken up by a eukaryotic cell, it developed a symbiotic relationship with its host cell.

According to the endosymbiont theory, what was the original chloroplast?

The endosymbiont theory holds that some of the organelles of living eukaryotic cells once existed.prokaryotic microbes. ... Chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells, divide by binary fission and, like bacteria, have Fts proteins in their plane of division.

24 related questions found

(Video) Evolution of Mitochondria and Chloroplast (BIOS 041)

What 3 pieces of evidence support the endosymbiotic theory?

The first evidence that had to be found to support the endosymbiotic hypothesis waswhether mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and whether this DNA is similar to bacterial DNA. This was later found to apply to the synthesis of DNA, RNA, ribosomes, chlorophyll (for chloroplasts) and proteins.

Who invented the endosymbiont theory?

The idea that the eukaryotic cell is a group of microorganisms was first proposed in the 1920s byAmerican biologist Ivan Wallin. The endosymbiont theory of mitochondria and chloroplasts was proposed by Lynn Margulis of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

What is the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory?

There is ample evidence that mitochondria and plastids evolved from bacteria, and one of the strongest arguments in support of the endosymbiotic theory is that both are true.Mitochondria and plastids contain DNA.that they differ from the nucleus of the cell and that they have their own protein biosynthesis machinery.

How does the endosymbiont theory explain the origin of mitochondria?

The endosymbiotic hypothesis of the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests yes.Mitochondria are the descendants of specialized bacteria (probably purple non-sulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis from another prokaryotic species or cell type and were incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Why is the endosymbiont theory important?

Endosymbiosis is important because it isa theory explaining the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria. It is also a theory that explains how eukaryotic cells emerged.

(Video) Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and the Endosymbiotic Theory

How is chloroplast similar to bacteria?

- Chloroplasts and mitochondria are prokaryotes. They have their own genes on a small circular chromosome, but without a nucleus. HeThe chromosome has little non-coding DNA, similar to those of bacteria. Chloroplasts and mitochondria also make some of their own proteins from their genes.

Does chloroplast occur in animal cells?

Chloroplasts are the cell's food producers. Organelles are only found in plant cells and some protists such as algae.Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.. ... The whole process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast.

Which came first, mitochondria or chloroplasts?

Mitochondria and plastids arose from endosymbiotic events, as progenitor cells an aerobic bacteria (in the case of mitochondria) and a photosynthetic bacteria (in the case ofcloroplasteno). The evolution of mitochondria probably preceded the evolution of chloroplasts.

Why do chloroplasts and mitochondria have double membranes?

The double membrane found in mitochondria and chloroplasts appears to bea remnant of uptake of prokaryotic bacteria by eukaryotic host cells. The inner membrane, which now contains numerous folds, appears to be derived from the bacterial membrane, while the outer membrane is derived from the host cell itself.

What is part of the Endosymbiont Theory Quizlet?

Theory of evolution that explains the origin of eukaryotes from ancestral prokaryotes. suggests thatsome organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts), evolved from free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed and later became obligate endosymbionts.

(Video) Endosymbiotic Theory

What explains Quizlet's theory of endosymbiosis?

The endosymbiont theory. He establishes thatOrganelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were once free-living prokaryotes that eventually lived symbiotically within larger cells., which make up modern eukaryotes.

Which explanation correctly describes the origin of mitochondria?

Which explanation correctly describes the origin of mitochondria?Mitochondria were originally prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell, and the two formed a symbiotic relationship..

Where do mitochondria come from?

Mitochondria evolved from an endosymbiotic alphaproteobacterium (purple) within a host cell derived from archaea more closely related to the Archaea of ​​Asgard (green). The oldest ancestor of mitochondria (which is also not the ancestor of an extant alphaproteobacterium) is premitochondrial alphaproteobacteria.

What are two pieces of evidence that mitochondria originate from bacteria?

Other evidence is:Like bacteria, mitochondria divide by binary fission.; Cells cannot form new mitochondria if they are removed; the outer membrane transport proteins (porins) are the same in bacteria and mitochondria, as is the composition of the membrane; Protein synthesis begins in the mitochondria.

Is there evidence for the endosymbiosis theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells?

Evidence suggests that these chloroplast organelles were also once free.Lifebacteria The endosymbiotic event that created mitochondria must have occurred early in eukaryotic history because all eukaryotes have them. ... The first eukaryotic cell appeared more than a billion years ago.


What are the three parts of the cell theory?

The three parts of the cell theory are:

  • All living creatures are made up of cells.
  • Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living things.
  • All cells come from existing cells. Furthermore, organisms grow by "adding more cells" NOT by increasing the size of their cells.

What is the real evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotes?

What evidence is there to support the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic cells? The endosymbiotic theory isbased on eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts. Both structures share properties (such as their own DNA and the ability to self-replicate) of independent prokaryotes.

Is the endosymbiont theory correct?

This proved incorrect in the 1960s, prompting Hans Ris to revive the idea. Endosymbiosis is a widely accepted debate in the world of molecular biology. The theory of endosymbiosis isa concept that mitochondria and chloroplasts are the result of many decades of evolution.

When did the endosymbiont theory emerge?

Ivan Wallin advanced the idea of ​​an endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria in1920s. Russian botanist Boris Kozo-Polyansky was the first to explain the theory in terms of Darwinian evolution. In his 1924 book, A New Principle of Biology.

Why can't chloroplasts and mitochondria live outside the cell now?

Most organelles are surrounded by membranes. Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-enclosed organelles. ...Over millions of years of evolution, mitochondria and chloroplasts evolvedbecome more specializedand today they cannot live outside the cell.

(Video) The Endosymbiotic Theory | Evolution of mitochondria and chloroplast | Video 13


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