The impact of tectonic plate movement on the modernized 2022 NSRS - GPS World (2023)

It's early 2022 and the new modernized NSRS is only three years away. I hope everyone readsNGS Model Documentsupdated throughout 2021 and attendingSeries of webinars NGS. Together they provide the latest information on changes from the existing NSRS to the new NSRS.

My previous columns have highlighted many aspects of the new geopotential geometry and data framework. In this month's column I will highlight the time sensitive aspect of the modernized NSRS and why it is necessary for the new system.

As I said earlier, NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is developing models and tools for users to transform coordinates between the four National Earth Reference Frames and the International Earth Reference Frame, Geopotential Datum and Vertical Datum. North America 1988 (NAVD 88) and the estimation of coordinates at times different from the time of observation of the survey, taking into account the movement.

What does NGS mean with estimated coordinates at times different from when the survey was made and why does the switch to the new and modernized SNRS need to be considered? This column will address these questions.

January 2022 NGS (27th edition) byNSRS modernization updatesannounced an article about the modernized NSRS and a name change to Intra-Frame Velocity Model (IFVM). See the diagram below. Users can subscribe to these newslettersHere, and you can access previous newslettersHere.

The last number of
NSRS modernization updates

The impact of tectonic plate movement on the modernized 2022 NSRS - GPS World (1)

Image by GovDelivery Communications Cloud commissioned by the NOAA National Ocean Service.

The new paper was published in October 2021 and is titled "The mathematical relationship between IFVM2022 expressed in ITRF2020 with IFVM2022 expressed in the four terrestrial reference frames of the modernized NSRS with dependency on EPP2022". is available for downloadHere.

The paper describes the mathematical relationship between the Intra-Frame Velocity Model (IFVM2022) and the Euler Pole Parameters (EPP2022).

IsNSRS modernization updatesThe announcement indicates that the name IFVM2022 has changed to Intraframe Deformation Model (IFDM2022). Helatest version of Plan 1and the October 2021 Report (NOS NGS 90) were published before the name changes, so they refer to IFVM2022 rather than IFDM2022.

The impact of tectonic plate movement on the modernized 2022 NSRS - GPS World (2)

Why does movement need to be considered? The coordinates change fundamentally because the earth's surface moves due to the movement of large tectonic plates. See the table below for information on why this is called plate motion or tectonic displacement. NGS understands this and tries to handle the change of coordinates by providing a time dependent component.

Image: National Ocean Service website

The impact of tectonic plate movement on the modernized 2022 NSRS - GPS World (4)

Screenshot: NOAA-Website

The NGS will define the four geometric terrestrial reference frames based on plate tectonics (see map below):

  • 2022 North American Earth Reference Frame (NATRF2022)
  • Pacific Land Reference Framework 2022 (PATRF2022)
  • Caribbean Country Reference Framework 2022 (CATRF2022)
  • Marianas Terrestrial Reference Framework 2022 (MATRF2022)

Four tectonic plates are part of the new NGS NSRS

Image: Dave Zilkoski

(Video) 2022 Datum Change

As indicated above, NGS develops models and tools to allow users to transform the coordinates between the four national reference frames and the international terrestrial reference frame and estimate the coordinates at different points in time of the survey observation time, taking into account the movement of score. These models are called EPP2022 and IFDM2022.

So what are EPP2022 and IFDM2022? And what does that mean for surveyors and cartographers?

EPP meansParameter des Eulerpols(a way to describe the rotation of a disk) and IFDM2022 is a way to calculate the offset in coordinates.

Why Euler's pole? See box Who Was Euler?

Who was Euler?

Leonhard Euler was a Swiss citizen who lived in the 18th century. He was one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived and is considered the greatest mathematician of the 18th century. He founded studies in graph theory and topology, and made groundbreaking and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics, such as B. Analysis. He introduced much modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy and music theory.

The definition of Euler's fixed point theorem states that any motion of a rigid body on the surface of a sphere can be represented as a rotation about a suitably chosen pole of rotation, called the Euler pole. Geologists have used this theorem to understand and describe the movements of tectonic plates.

NGS's 2021 Revised Blueprint 1, NOAA Technical Report NOS NGS 62,Plan for the modernized EREN, Part 1: Geometric coordinates and ground reference framesprovides an explanation of Euler poles and "plate fixed" structures. As in "Who was Euler?" In the box, the definition of Euler's fixed point theorem states that any motion of a rigid body on the surface of a sphere can be represented as a rotation about a suitably chosen pole of rotation, called the Euler pole. The following is stated in the NOS NGS 62 report in "Plate-Fixed Frames and Euler Poles", Section 4:

If only the rigid (non-deformable) part of a tectonic plate is considered, the plate's horizontal motion (relative to a plate-independent global reference frame such as the ITRF) can be modeled as rotation about a geocentric axis. pass a fixed point. point on the earth's surface. Although such models must make certain assumptions (e.g. plate stiffness), the dominant motion of most points on most tectonic plates is rotation about a fixed point. This point is known as the "Euler Pole".

It is important to note that determining the location of a plate's Euler pole and the angular velocity at which the plate is rotating can be determined empirically using GNSS observations from a CORS mesh distributed across the plate. Figure 1 of the NOS NGS 62 report shows a graph of the Euler pole and the horizontal velocity vectors of the North American plate at selected CORS (see box titled "NOS NGS 62 Figure 1").

Figure 1 of NOS NGS 62

Photo: NGS site

Every place on earth is moving. This includes adjacent markers on the same tectonic plate. This means that after removing the Eulerian motions, the remaining motions change the relative differences in the coordinates of neighboring landmarks located on the same tectonic plate. Figures 2 and 3 of the NOS NGS 62 report show plots of estimates of these remaining velocities (see boxes titled "NOS NGS 62 Figure 2" and "NOS NGS 62 Figure 3").

Figure 2 is a plot of non-Eulean motion east of 110°western longitudes. As stated in the report, most velocities are less than 2 mm/year. The concept is that the EPP2022 and IVDM2022 models eliminate both Eulerian and non-Eulerian motion of marks.

Figure 2 of NOS NGS 62

Image: NGS website

Figure 3 is a plot of non-Eulean vectors west of 110°western longitude. As indicated in the graph, the large vectors in western California, western Oregon, and western Washington show areas of deformation near plate boundaries that do not appear to be adequately captured by plate rotation alone.

(Video) CIA Classified Book about the Pole Shift, Mass Extinctions and The True Adam & Eve Story

Figure 3 of NOS NGS 62

Image: NGS website

It should be noted that the magnitude vectors in Figures 2 and 3 represent a different magnitude of motion. Figure 2 shows the vectors at 1-3 mm/year and Figure 3 shows the movement at 10-30 mm/year.

To better visualize the potential magnitude of the movement, I downloaded the CORS ITRF2014 coordinates and velocitiesWebsite NGSand compiled the results. See boxes titled "Cors ITRF 2014 Horizontal Velocity" and "Table of ITRF 2014 Horizontal and Upward Velocity of U.S. CORSs".

CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal speeds

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

The graph titled CORS ITRF 2014 Horizontal Velocity provides the horizontal vectors based on the NGS file downloaded on January 13th. Only the CORS speed identified as operational and calculated has been included in the graph.

I've also created a table summarizing the ITRF rates for CORS marked as part of the United States. The table includes the following information for each U.S. state and territory:

  1. Number of CORS
  2. Minimum horizontal speed (mm/year)
  3. Maximum horizontal speed (mm/year)
  4. Average horizontal speed (mm/year)
  5. Minimum ascent rate (mm/year
  6. Maximum ascent rate (mm/year),
  7. Average ascent rate (mm/year).

See table below.

US CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal and rate of climb chart

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Highlighted areas are not on the North American Plate (GU, HI, PR and VQ), and the highlighted states are partially on or near the boundary of the North American Plate and another tectonic plate (Alaska, California, Oregon, Washington).

The areas highlighted in the table are not on the North American plate (GU, HI, PR, and VQ), and the highlighted states are partially on or near the North American plate boundary (CA, OR, WA). This is one of the reasons why its minimum and maximum horizontal speed values ​​are different from most other state values.

To visualize the relative differences in horizontal velocities between neighboring CORS, I have plotted the ITRF 2014 horizontal velocities for the CORS in North Carolina (see box titled "Cors ITRF 2014 Horizontal Veloties in North Carolina"). Looking at the figure it is obvious that all speeds are around 14 mm/year and moving in the same direction.

CORS ITRF 2014 Horizontalgeschwindigkeiten in North Carolina

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Screenshot: Dave Zilkoski

(Video) Turkey Earthquake Update; Magnitude 7.8 & 7.5 Earthquakes Strike Southern Turkey

I have plotted the horizontal velocities for Missouri to give an example of velocities in the contiguous Midwest. The magnitude of the velocities is similar to North Carolina, but the direction of the vector is slightly different. North Carolina average horizontal velocity is 14.1 mm/year and Missouri average horizontal velocity is 14.6 mm/year.

CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal speeds in Missouri

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

To highlight the differences along the boundaries of the tectonic plates, I've included a CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal velocity chart for the state of Oregon and a chart for states along the west coast of the United States. See boxes titled CORS ITRF 2014 Horizontal Velocity in Oregon and CORS ITRF 2014 Horizontal Velocity Along the West Coast of CONUS. As indicated in the graph, there are significant changes in horizontal velocities near the Oregon coast. Values ​​decreased from inland CORS to coastal CORS by about 10 mm/year.

CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal speeds in Oregon

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

The graph of CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal velocities along the west coast of CONUS clearly shows the change in magnitude the closer the CORS is to the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates.

CORS ITRF 2014 Horizontal velocities along the west coast of CONUS

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

I've also included a graph of Alaska's horizontal speeds for completeness.

CORS ITRF 2014 horizontal speed in Alaska

Calculated speeds only (downloaded on January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

To better visualize the horizontal and upward velocity of CORS across states, I have plotted the average horizontal and upward velocity for each state as a function of that state's CORS. See the table titled Average Speeds by State.

Average speeds by state

Image: Dave Zilkoski

(Video) Transitioning to the United States 2022 National Coordinate System without Getting Left Behind

I also calculated an average horizontal velocity value based on CONUS CORS east of 110°west longitude (given here as a regional horizontal velocity value). [I used CORS east of 110°west longitude to match NGS Figure 2 in NOS NGS 62.]

The chart below summarizes the average horizontal movement for each state. The table offers:

  1. Or CORS number east of 110°longitude east
  2. Average horizontal speed (mm/year)
  3. Average horizontal velocity minus regional horizontal velocity (mm/year).

This provides an estimate of the variations in relative horizontal movement between states.

ITRF 2014 horizontal speed table minus US CORS regional speed east of 110°longitude east

The table includes only CORS east of 110°West Longitude (Image: Dave Zilkoski)

The chart titled "NC Horizontal Velocities minus Average Velocity" shows the resulting horizontal velocities with average velocity removed (average velocity was based on NC CORS only) for all CORS in North Carolina. As can be seen from the diagram, most of the resulting horizontal velocities are less than 1mm/year, but still not zero. Again, this is just to give you an idea of ​​the magnitude of the relative vectors between CORS in North Carolina.

As indicated in the NOS NGS 62 report, these horizontal velocities will be small but not zero. Therefore, the NGS must provide templates and tools for users to convert the coordinates between the four national frameworks (NATRF, PATRF, CATRF and MATRF) and the International Terrestrial Reference Framework (ITRF).and estimating the coordinates at different points in time of the survey observation time, taking into account the movement within the frame of reference. California surveyors have studied this type of movement for many years.

Horizontal speeds in NC minus average speed

(Downloaded January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

I have plotted the 2014 ITRF slew rate values ​​from CORS in North Carolina to present an estimate of CORS vertical motion in North Carolina. See the diagram below. The values ​​of the vertical velocities are much smaller than the horizontal velocities, but they are still not zero. A future column will look at up-velocities based on ITRF 2014 rates and crustal motion models.

Upward speed from CORS ITRF 2014 in North Carolina

(Downloaded January 13, 2022)

Image: Dave Zilkoski

This column explains why it is important to consider ridge movement everywhere, not just in areas affected by active earthquake-induced crustal movement, such as Southern California. Providing information on CORS movement rates based on NGS ITRF2014 coordinates and speed information. He highlighted NGS reports that describe templates that make it easier for users to transfer coordinates between frames of reference and to manipulate movements within the frame between markers based on surveys performed at different times. This isn't just a horizontal placement issue.

A future column will deal with estimates of vertical velocities in the new modernized NSRS.


What is the impact of tectonic plate movement? ›

The theory of plate tectonics revolutionized the earth sciences by explaining how the movement of geologic plates causes mountain building, volcanoes, and earthquakes.

How does GPS support the theory of modern day plate tectonics? ›

Using GPS to Study Plate Motion and Crustal Deformation

Changes in the location of a GPS station are therefore caused by movement of the Earth's surface. By comparing the motion of several GPS stations in a region over time, scientists can detect motion of tectonic plates and infer deformation of the Earth's crust.

How the movement of tectonic plates shaped our world today? ›

Even though plates move very slowly, their motion, called plate tectonics , has a huge impact on our planet. Plate tectonics form the oceans, continents, and mountains. It also helps us understand why and where events like earthquakes occur and volcanoes erupt.

How have movements of tectonic plates affected modern climates? ›

Plate tectonic processes have also been responsible for climate change in other ways. For example, the movement of plates can change the characteristics of ocean basins, and that can change ocean currents, and therefore, the climate.

What are the 3 consequences or effects of plate movement? ›

The uplift and sinking of land, earthquakes (the sudden release of energy that causes shaking), and volcanic eruptions are all evidence of interactions and stress due to the movement of the plates.

What are the major causes and effects of tectonic plate movements? ›

The movement of these tectonic plates is likely caused by convection currents in the molten rock in Earth's mantle below the crust. Earthquakes and volcanoes are the short-term results of this tectonic movement. The long-term result of plate tectonics is the movement of entire continents over millions of years (Fig.

What impact did the GPS have on the world? ›

It has changed the way we communicate with people and devices. Allowed for the digital mapping and navigational revolution. It has helped people, companies, and governments with business and logistical management.

How has GPS impacted the way we travel? ›

One of the pros of using GPS is that it not only shows the route but the fastest and easiest route to reach your destination. It also shows you the time in which you can reach your destination. GPS has an added benefit is that along with showing the route, it also shows you the traffic situation on those routes.

How does GPS help us today? ›

Surveyors, scientists, pilots, boat captains, first responders, and workers in mining and agriculture, are just some of the people who use GPS on a daily basis for work. They use GPS information for preparing accurate surveys and maps, taking precise time measurements, tracking position or location, and for navigation.

What is the main cause of plate movement? ›

The heat from radioactive processes within the planet's interior causes the plates to move, sometimes toward and sometimes away from each other. This movement is called plate motion, or tectonic shift.

What are the two main factors of tectonic plates movement? ›

Heat and gravity are fundamental to the process

The energy source for plate tectonics is Earth's internal heat while the forces moving the plates are the “ridge push” and “slab pull” gravity forces.

What are the five effects of plate tectonics? ›

Their movement and effects at plate boundaries are explained e.g. earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building, ocean ridges/trenches, subduction (part of the rock cycle).

Are plate tectonics affected by climate change? ›

Plate tectonics is one of the three major types of climate forcing in the natural world (the other two being changes in the Earth's orbit and changes in the strength of the Sun). Climate forcing is when a mechanism "forces" the climate to change. These are both natural and human-caused climate forcing mechanisms.

What is a way that tectonic plate movement can affect climate on land? ›

Climate Change due to Plate Tectonics. affect of more land at higher latitudes: alter ocean currents and therefore heat transport. alter global atmospheric circulation.

Is tectonic activity affected by climate change? ›

Fire and Ice: Glaciers and Tectonic Processes

Another climate-related phenomenon that's believed to have connections to tectonic processes is glaciation. The retreat of a glacier can reduce stress loads on Earth's crust underneath, impacting the movement of subsurface magma.

What are two bad things that can happen as a result of plate tectonics? ›

Natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis are linked to plate tectonics, the grinding movement of pieces of Earth's crust.

What are the three main causes of plate movement? ›

Tectonic plates move due to mantle convection, subduction and slab pull. Mantle convection is the movement of magma due to its variation in temperature and density, which also causes the tectonic plates to move.

What are some events caused by plate movements? ›

Most of the world's earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth's outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates col- lide and one is thrust beneath another.

What are 4 features caused by plate tectonics? ›

Deep ocean trenches, volcanoes, island arcs, submarine mountain ranges, and fault lines are examples of features that can form along plate tectonic boundaries.

What will happen if the tectonic plates continue to move in the future? ›

By continuing to shuffle the contents around and change the ocean basins in the longer term. In the shorter term, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes will continue.

What is the conclusion about tectonic plates? ›

Plate tectonics is the grand, unifying theory of Earth sciences, combining the concepts of continental drift and sea-floor spreading into one holistic theory that explains many of the major structural features of the Earth's surface.

What real world problem does GPS solve? ›

The three main industrial uses of GPS include precision agriculture, automotive and defense. In each example, GPS solves a positioning problem.

How has GPS been improved? ›

Compared to previous generations, GPS IIF satellites have a longer life expectancy and a higher accuracy requirement. Each spacecraft uses a mix of rubidium and cesium atomic clocks to keep time within 8 billionths of a second per day. The IIF series will improve the accuracy, signal strength, and quality of GPS.

What problems did GPS solve? ›

A GPS tracking service can help you plan better routes, dispatch drivers more efficiently, pinpoint any extracurricular activities that happen on the clock, and more.

How has GPS made the world safer? ›

The availability and accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) offer increased efficiencies and safety for vehicles using highways, streets, and mass transit systems. GPS enables automatic vehicle location and in-vehicle navigation systems that are widely used throughout the world today.

What are the pros and cons of GPS? ›

So for this article, we've listed down the pros and cons of GPS tracking, starting with:
  • Pro: Worldwide accessibility. ...
  • Con: Privacy issues. ...
  • Pro: Independent operation. ...
  • Con: Accuracy concerns. ...
  • Pro: Improved productivity rate. ...
  • Con: Battery-dependent. ...
  • Outlook – GPS Tracking.

Why is GPS so successful? ›

GPS is so ubiquitous because of the simplicity of the concept. Each GPS satellite is essentially an extremely accurate clock that broadcasts the exact time at its location. The satellites also provide the location in orbit of all other GPS satellites.

What plate movement causes a fault? ›

Normal faulting occurs when two plates move away from each other, causing one to slide down relative to the other.

What does plate tectonics help to explain? ›

Plate tectonics has become the unifying theory of geology. It explains the earth's surface movement, current and past, which has created the tallest mountain ranges and the deepest oceans.

What are the main types of plate movements what happens in each? ›

The movement of the plates creates three types of tectonic boundaries: convergent, where plates move into one another; divergent, where plates move apart; and transform, where plates move sideways in relation to each other. They move at a rate of one to two inches (three to five centimeters) per year.

What are 3 facts about plate tectonics? ›

Interesting Facts about Plate Tectonics

It is the cause of so many earthquakes in California. The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean. It is formed by a convergent boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Mariana Plate. The Pacific Plate is being subducted under the Mariana Plate.

How do tectonic plates cause disasters? ›

Tectonic Plates typically move only a few centimetres per year. Earthquakes usually occur at fault lines, the major fault lines are at the plate boundaries where stress and strain builds up between the adjacent plates resulting in a sudden movement of rock which releases seismic energy causing an earthquake.

What are the 3 main causes of global warming? ›

Causes of global warming
  • carbon pollution.
  • climate change.
  • energy.

What are the 5 major factors that affect climate? ›

Hint:The five main factors which affect the climate of a region are Latitude, Altitude, relief, currents and winds and distance from the sea.

How Earth's plate movements affect human lives and its environment? ›

Answer and Explanation: We, as humans, live on top of the lithosphere, which includes tectonic plates. When tectonic plates interact near boundaries, they can cause natural disasters, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Large geological features, like mountain ranges and volcanos, can also form.

How long does it take tectonic movement to impact global climate? ›

The timescale of variations in global Co2 related to changes in plate tectonics are slow, and they fall under the realm of causing very long-term climate changes, in cycles ranging from millions to tens of millions of years.

Can tectonic activity cause extinction? ›

Perhaps the most dramatic example of the potential impact of plate tectonics on life occurred near the end of the Permian Period (roughly 299 million to 252 million years ago). Several events contributed to the Permian extinction that caused the permanent disappearance of half of Earth's known biological families.

What are most affected by climate change? ›

The Arctic is one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, as it is warming at least twice the rate of the global average and melting land ice sheets and glaciers contribute dramatically to sea level rise around the globe.

What damage can tectonic plates cause? ›

Most of the world's earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth's outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates col- lide and one is thrust beneath another.

What are tectonic plates and how do they affect Earth processes? ›

Tectonic plates, large slabs of rock that divide Earth's crust, move constantly to reshape the Earth's landscape. The system of ideas behind plate tectonics theory suggests that Earth's outer shell (lithosphere) is divided into several plates that glide over the Earth's rocky inner layer above the soft core (mantle).

How has the movement of tectonic plates had an impact on how the Earth and its landforms and landscapes have been shaped? ›

Mountain landscapes are formed by tectonic plates on the Earth's surface pushing against each other. This movement and pressure causes the shape of the land to change. The land is pushed up in a vertical direction and over time forms mountains.

What is the product of plate tectonics? ›

Modern geography: Our oceans, continents, and mountains are all direct products of plate tectonics, and most other large features, such as big rivers, are indirect results.

Do tectonic plates affect climate change? ›

The movement of the plates also causes volcanoes and mountains to form and these can also contribute to a change in climate. Large mountain chains can influence the circulation of air around the globe, and consequently influence the climate.

Is tectonic plates a hazard or risk? ›

Tectonic hazards are threats caused by the movement of tectonic plates that have the potential to cause damage to life, property, the environment, human activity and/or the economy. Tectonic hazards include earthquakes and volcanic activity.

What are the two main factors that cause the movement of tectonic plates? ›

Tremendous heat and pressure within the earth cause the hot magma to flow in convection currents. These currents cause the movement of the tectonic plates that make up the earth's crust.

How might plate tectonics affect life on Earth? ›

It is what made the Earth habitable. It formed the continents we live on – we can't live under water. When plates collide and subduct (where one plate goes under another), magma is generated, creating volcanoes. We think several repetitions of this process is what built the continents.

What major event could occur as the result of transforming plates? ›

The grinding action between the plates at a transform plate boundary results in shallow earthquakes, large lateral displacement of rock, and a broad zone of crustal deformation.

How has the movement of Earth's plates affected the evolution of living things? ›

As continents broke apart from Pangaea, species got separated by seas and oceans and speciation occurred. Individuals that were once able to interbreed were reproductively isolated from one another and eventually acquired adaptations that made them incompatible. This drove evolution by creating new species.

What are tectonic plates answer in one sentence? ›

The lithosphere is divided into multiple irregularly shaped plates. These plates are called tectonic plates.

How does living near plate boundaries affect people's lives? ›

Some of the most destructive natural hazards that occur on Earth—earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions—are associated with tectonic plate boundaries.


1. New Discovery Under Antarctica's Ice That Scares Scientists!
(Future Unity)
2. Preparing for Change: New Coordinates Coming in 2022? (MEGUG Virtual Lunch & Learn)
(Maine GIS User Group)
3. Alaska Earthquake activity.. Cascadia tremor increasing.. Saturday night update 10/8/2022
4. Monthly update of activity at Yellowstone Volcano (December 1, 2022)
5. S2 - 2021 C4G NSRS Outreach Event - Louisiana 2022 State Plane Coordinates Legislation
(LSU Center for GeoInformatics)
6. SmartNet Fall Update - Adjustment & Multiple Reference Frame Launch - 11.2.2017
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Virgilio Hermann JD

Last Updated: 12/22/2022

Views: 5971

Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Virgilio Hermann JD

Birthday: 1997-12-21

Address: 6946 Schoen Cove, Sipesshire, MO 55944

Phone: +3763365785260

Job: Accounting Engineer

Hobby: Web surfing, Rafting, Dowsing, Stand-up comedy, Ghost hunting, Swimming, Amateur radio

Introduction: My name is Virgilio Hermann JD, I am a fine, gifted, beautiful, encouraging, kind, talented, zealous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.