THE THREE GREAT UNIVERS OF JAPAN
Some thoughts onPeriode sengokuor Japan's Warring States period would give an insight into Japan's background prior to its unification as it witnessed the three unifiers and the rise of the warrior class,Samurai.
ÖsengokuPeriod starting withI amWar 1467 and lasted until 1603.
At the time, Japan was divided into many small states that were at war with each other over land and power over the shogunate, leading to political chaos and insecurity. Military clashes were the order of the day.(Photograph of Japan in 1570. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QuelleWikipedia)
Back then, Japan had two leaders, the Emperor and the Shogun. The emperor lived in Kyoto with his noble family and the shoguns chose their favorite place of rule. The Emperor did not rule and was only a leading figure. Shoguns appointed by the Emperor would rule the country. A shogun was a military general loyal to the emperor.
The word shogun is short forShogun Sei-i Tai.Perhaps（征） means conquer,UE(I mean barbarians or savages,Tag(大) means great.you need to（将） means commander andPistol（軍） means army. A rough translation would be "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians".
The two powerful families whostripesmiminamotoThey clashed to gain control of the failed imperial court. Initially, the war was won by the Taira, but they were eventually defeated by the Taira.minamoto. Thus became the first shogunate, thekamakuraHappiness (Kamakura-Bakufu) was found byminamoto Yoritomoin 1192. He established the feudal system in Japan and theSamuraior the Warrior class. (Picture ofMinamoto Yoritomo)
the wars aboutminamotoIn 1274 and later in 1281, the defense of Japan against the Mongols resulted in heavy financial losses and thekamakuraThe shogunate collapsed in 1333.
ÖAshikaga bakufuassumed lowAshikaga Takauji. All subsequent shogunates should be relatedYoritomomiAshikaga TakaujiErasvon YoritomoprimaAshikagaThe shogunate was based onMuromachigetting closerHeian-kyo(Kyoto). therefore, theAshikagaThe Shogunate was also called the Muromachi Shogunate.
AshikagaThe shogunate ended with the outbreak of theI amWar in 1467 that plunged Japan into an era of civil war, the Sengoku period or thesengoku jidai.
ÖAshikagaThe shogunate has had to face several challenges throughout its existence under successive shoguns…. Many power-hungry emperors sought to amass power, and military generals formed their own fiefdoms to be controlled. Power struggles between different groups led to the weakening of the shogunate. In addition, the imperial court became unable to contain the military regime and eventually became obsequious and submissive to theShogunSShogunIn addition to military and police powers, he gained power over the judiciary and the fiscal and economic powers of the imperial court. This led to the absorption of the imperial court by the shogunate.
Power-hungry daimyos often waged war (Oonin's War), scene of the long and turbulent period of the Warring States (Sengoku Jidai)- an era of relentless internal wars in Japan. (Photography:Oonin's warpaint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QuelleWikipedia)
THE UNITERS OF JAPAN
They were 3 great unifiers of Japan with the sole intention of unifying Japan. They areOda Nobunaga, Toyotomi HideyoshimiTokugawa leyasu, all from Nagoya, Aichi Province.
ODA NOBUNAGA (1534-1582)
Oda Nobunaga was the son of a daimyo's deputy and was the commander of the powerfulaodclan oneOwariprovince, near Nagoya. This province was home to Japan's rice suppliers. As a child, he was quite impulsive and inflexible around people, earning him the nickname "Owari's Fool". Oda Nobunaga inherited his father's lands and began expanding his territories.
Meanwhile, in 1565, the thirteenth shogun ofAshikagaHappiness,Ashikaga Takaujidied in a war. He was succeeded by the 14th Shogun, a puppet shogun who died of an illness after 4 years. This laid the foundation for a young and ambitious companyDaimio, Oda Nobunaga galloping in the photo.
A nickname during the 16th century,gekukujowas in fashion. It means "mastery of the superior by the inferior". Oda Nobunaga would exemplify this moniker. He was someone of low rank who was ambitious enough to try to unify Japan. He took this as an opportunity to expand his authority and attract masterless samurai and farming villages.
Also, he was called the Demon King as he was ruthless and ruthless towards those who did not carry out his command or tried to gain favor and support with gifts and kill them. An example of his ruthless nature is when he murderedAshikaga Yoshiakiwhom he intended to make the fifteenth shogun and a puppet figure and rule behind him after conquering the imperial capital in 1568.YoshiakHe didn't agree with the plan and it ended up with Oda Nobunaga killing and destroying himAshikagashogunate in 1573.
Oda Nobunaga fought in several wars during his reign and conquered many territories.
Nobunaga lived in peace for three years, from 1576 to 1579. But his assertiveness and boldness angered some of his generals. Oda Nobunaga was therehonnojiCastle in Kyoto where he would hold a tea ceremony. A man,Akechi Mitsuhide, one of his generals, took the opportunity to kill Oda Nobunaga. he had thehonnojiTemple surrounded by his troops. Aware of the imminent threat to his life, Oda Nobunaga committed ritual suicide (Seppuku) in the temple and asked one of his men to set fire to the temple so that the enemy would take his decapitated head.
TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI (1537-1598)
Toyotomi Hideyoshi nasceu emNakamuraSheOwariProvince (now Nakamura District, Nagoya). your father wasAshigaruor private. He lost his father when he was 7 years old.
He joined Oda Nobunaga's forcesAshigaru, but became one of Nobunaga's sandal wearers, one rank higher. He displayed multiple talents, including diplomacy, and soon became Nobunaga's trusted general.
Although Nobunaga managed to unify Japan, he did not fully unify the country, particularly the southern regions such as Kyushu and the eastern islands of Honshu.
Nobunaga went through without a successor and there was confusion as to who would lead.
It was around this time that Toyotomi Hideyoshi, one of Nobunaga's trusted generals, took the reins. Angered at how Oda Nobunaga was killed, he decided to avenge his death. A fierce battle ensued between Akechi's and Hideyoshi's forces, in which the latter was killed.Akechiand brought his body to Kyoto. This act justified him becoming Nobunaga's successor.
Unlike Oda Nobunaga, Hideyoshi believed in diplomacy! So all his activities were carried out with diplomacy and tact! He used diplomacy to gain control of Kyushu and the eastern region.
He then disarmed the peasants and asked them to surrender their weapons. This is called the Great Sword Hunt (Katanagari刀狩) from 1588. The swords thus collected were melted down and the metal used to make a statue of the Buddha, which appeased the monks.
This made it clear that anyone with swords would only be a member of the samurai class. Sword hunting interrupted the practice of hiring peasants as warriors.
From then on, Hideyoshi defined a social order in Japan. He divided the people of Japan into 4 different classes, namely samurai, farmers, artisans and merchants. By order of Hideyoshi, movement from one class to another was forbidden. The samurai had to hold on to oneDaimioand be away from agriculture and farmers.
This affected a small group of people called the Jizamurai, who were essentially farmers but were hired to fight. Citizens were no longer afraid of Jizamurai because they could do their jobs without intimidation.
Hideyoshi also implemented land reforms. Each part of the agricultural land has been categorized by location and production. Wetlands, drylands, residential areas and orchards.
The rice was superior, medium or inferior. Peasant families who have been farming the land for a long time received documents from Hideyoshi's government, and an annual tax was levied like rice. A measure,A treeThe equivalent of £300 was used to measure the rice that would be given as a tax.
This land reform made things easier for the government and taxpayers because they knew how much tax to collect and how much tax to pay!
Hideyoshi also taught how his generals should govern their domains. Their taxes were set based on the amount of land they ruled and the annual production of that land. Thus, a general with large regions with greater production would receive more.
As he grew older, his thoughts and actions became unpredictable. An example is that although he appeared to favor Christians (Jesuits and Franciscans) and their activities in Japan, he ordered the execution of Catholic priests and lay people. He crucified 26 Christians, 9 priests and 17 lay people in Nagasaki in 1596. (Picture above: Monument to the 26 Martyrs of Japan in Nagasaki. Source Wikipedia)
When Toyotomi Hideyoshi had a son, he also executed 31 members of his heir apparent's family.Toyotomi Hidesugi,so that his son can follow him.
He made his generals promise to take care of his son and protect him until he reached the age of government. One of the generals was Tokugawa Ieyasu, who had other plans but was supposed to protect Hidesugi.
Tokugawa Ieyasu, the third of Japan's great Uniters, was born in JapanOkazakiMikawa Castle, Aichi Prefecture 1DaimiocalledMatsudaira Hirotada. he was nominatedMatsudaira Takechiyoat birth. The lands controlled by Ieyasu's father were between the territories of two major clans, theshare themvonSurugaIt is inaodClans.
When he was very young, Ieyasu was taken hostage by various clans as there was a war to win.MatsudairaClan. He survived this trauma. Aged 6 during his kidnapping byaodclan onehonshoujiTemple near Nagoya, who met Oda Nobunaga, then 14 years old. Ieyasu's father was killed by his bribed vassalaodClan.
At the age of 9 he was taken hostageSunpuup to 14 years old. Then he supported and fought for themshare themClan. He married and had a child while working forshare themClan. During this time he changed his first name.Matsudaira Jirosaburo MotonobumiMatsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu.
the leader ofshare themClan,Imagawa Yoshimotogave Ieyasu the responsibility of fighting theterasu. He fought and won the siege and also fought the Oda clan who tried to attack his army.
In 1559 Oda Nobunaga became the leader of hisaodClan.Imagawa YoshimotoHe moved against Oda Nobunaga with an army of 25,000 and was killed by Oda Nobunaga.
But after the death of Oda Nobunaga, Ieyasu and Hideyoshi became rivals who were of the same stature. They had a fightNagakutemiKomaki(currently in Nagoya) and finally called a ceasefire. Ieyasu relinquished his native rule over Mikawa and the surrounding area. He was put in charge of the Kanto region, where he founded theTokugawaHappiness (Tokugawa-Bakufu) in a cityÖ(now Tokyo) (Toyotomi built Osaka Castle and lived there with his wife and son.)
In 1556 the Emperor bestowed the titleMikawa no Kamifor Ieyasu. and the following year he changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the name by which he is remembered.
Hideyoshi died in 1598, leaving an infant son.Hideyori.The fact thatHideyorihe was still young led to new power struggles. Hideyori was cared for and protected byIshida Mitsunari.
Ieyasu derrotadoMitsunariin the fight forSekigaharaa 1600.
After winning the battle ofSekigahara, turned out to be incomparable. He was declared shogun by the emperor in Kyoto in 1603. This was the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled for 250 years until 1867. However, the Tokugawa resigned as shogun within 2 years, leaving his son behindhiddenShogunate control chooses to rule behind the scenes. He built Edo Castle, which was the basis for future Tokugawa shoguns.
When he implemented the Toyotomi land reforms, he gave the richest rice-growing land to the daimyos within the Tokugawa clan, at that time theFudaiDaimyos who allied with the Tokugawa during theSekigaharaBattle. and third toIt's meDaimyo is not affiliated with the Tokugawa clan.
Tokugawa Japan enjoyed peace and stability until 1867. This period is calledbaku-han.Some of his achievements include.
conversion ofÖ, a fishing village to a sophisticated city.
Japan consisted of 300Iss or domains at the end of the Edo period. The daimyo had the responsibility of protecting the people from starvation. Daimyos who failed to fulfill these roles were transferred to other domains or removed from their posts.
Ieyasu ran the mining industry and this made him very wealthy. He became even richer by selling silver to China, which was in dire economic straits. Japan produced a third of the world's silver during the Tokugawa era.
Tokugawa Ieyasu had many sons and therefore had the flexibility to distribute authority and choose his true successor.
At the end with Toyotomi's son,Hideyoriand her mother, who lived in Osaka Castle. and killedHideyorieight-year-old son who cuts off his head. This ended fears that the Toyotomi would succeed the Tokugawa. After securing the shogunate for future shoguns, Ieyasu died a year after killing Toyotomi's family.
And so the Edo period was a time of peace, without wars. It also shaped the development of the arts in many ways, and a rich and pure Japanese culture that we know today!