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Different types of concrete are produced depending on the starting material, mixture design, construction method, area of application and type of hydration reaction. Details of these different types of concrete, their properties and applications are discussed.
- 23 types of concrete and their applications
- 1. Normal strength concrete
- 2. Concrete simple
- 3. Reinforced concrete
- 4. Prestressed concrete
- 5. Fertigbeton
- 6. Lightweight concrete
- 7. High density concrete
- 8. Aerated concrete
- 9. Concrete soon
- 10. Polymer concrete
- 11. High strength concrete
- 12. High performance concrete
- 13. Self-compacting concrete
- 14. Spritzbeton
- 15. Permeable concrete
- 16. Vacuum concrete
- 17. Pumped concrete
- 18. Stamped concrete
- 19. Limestone
- 20. Asphaltbeton
- 21. Walzbeton
- 22. Fast setting concrete
- 23. Glasbeton
23 types of concrete and their applications
The different types of concrete are:
- normal strength concrete
- Plain or ordinary concrete
- reinforced concrete
- prestressed concrete
- Precast concrete parts
- lightweight concrete
- High density concrete
- aerated concrete
- Polymer concrete
- Polymer concrete
- polymer cement concrete
- Polymer impregnated concrete
- High strength concrete
- high-performance concrete
- Self-compacting concrete
- permeable concrete
- concrete void
- pumped concrete
- embossed concrete
- asphalt, concrete
- Roll compacted concrete
- Fast setting concrete
The properties and uses of the different types of concrete mentioned above are briefly explained:
1. Normal strength concrete
The concrete obtained by mixing the basic ingredients cement, water and aggregate gives a normal strength concrete. The strength of this type of concrete ranges from 10 MPa to 40 MPa. Normal strength concrete has a setting time of 30 to 90 minutes, depending on the properties of the cement and the climatic conditions of the construction site.
2. Concrete simple
Plain concrete contains no reinforcement. The main components are cement, aggregate and water. The most common mix design used is 1:2:4, which is the normal mix design. The density of bulk concrete varies between 2,200 and 2,500 kg/cubic meter. The compressive strength is 200 to 500 kg/cm2These types of concrete are mainly used in flooring and building construction, mainly in areas where high tensile strength is less required. The durability imparted by this type of concrete is quite satisfactory.
3. Reinforced concrete
Reinforced cement concrete is defined as concrete into which reinforcement is introduced to withstand tensile strength. Plain concrete is weak in tension and good in compression. Therefore, the placement of the reinforcement takes responsibility for absorbing the tensile forces. R.C.C works with the combined effect of mass concrete and reinforcement. The reinforcing steel used in the concrete can be in the form of struts, rods or in the form of mats. Now the fibers are also being developed as reinforcement.Fiber concrete is a concrete that uses fibers (steel fibers) as reinforcement for the concrete. Using mesh in concrete gives ferrocement. Regardless of what type of reinforcement is used in the concrete, it is very important to ensure adequate bond between the concrete and the reinforcement. This bond controls the strength and durability factors of the concrete.Also read:Why choose reinforced concrete as a building material for a structure?
4. Prestressed concrete
Most concrete mega projects are done with prestressed concrete elements. This is a special technique in which the bars or cables used in the concrete are tensioned before the actual working load is applied. During the mixing and placing of the concrete, these tie rods are fixed and held at each end of the assembly. After the concrete has set and hardened, the assembly is pressurized. This prestressing phenomenon makes the lower section of the concrete element more resistant to tension.The tensioning process requires heavy equipment and specialized labor (jacks and tensioners). Therefore, the clamping units are manufactured on site and assembled on site. They are used in the application of bridges, heavy-duty structures and roofs with larger spans.Also read:Principles, needs and advantages of prestressed concrete
Various structural elements can be manufactured and cast to specifications at the factory and purchased locally at the time of assembly. These concrete units are called precast concrete elements. Examples of precast concrete elements are concrete blocks, stair units, precast walls and posts, concrete lintels and many other elements. These units have the advantage of being quick to set up as only one assembly is required. Since the production takes place on site, the quality is guaranteed. The only precaution concerns the transport.Also read:
6. Lightweight concrete
Concrete with a density below 1920 kg/m3It is classified as lightweight concrete. By using lightweight aggregates in the concrete structure, we obtain lightweight aggregates. Aggregates are the important element that contributes to the density of concrete. Examples of lightweight aggregates are pumice, perlite and slag. Lightweight concrete is used to protect metal structures and also in the construction of long-span bridge decks. These are also used to build the building blocks.Also read:Lightweight concrete - types, classification, uses and advantages
7. High density concrete
Concrete with densities between 3000 and 4000 kg/m3It can be called heavy concrete. Heavy aggregates are used here. Crushed stone is used as coarse aggregate. The most commonly used heavy aggregates are barite. These types of aggregates are most commonly used in the construction of nuclear power plants and similar projects. The heavy aggregate helps the structure withstand all kinds of radiation.Also read:Applications of high-density radiation protection concrete in construction
8. Aerated concrete
These are types of concrete in which air is intentionally incorporated in an amount of 3 to 6% of the concrete. Air is incorporated into the concrete by adding foam or gaseous blowing agents. Some examples of air entraining agents are resins, alcohols and fatty acids.For more information, see:Influence of air-entrained concrete on concrete strength
9. Concrete soon
Concrete that is mixed and paved in a batching plant is called ready-mixed concrete. The mixed concrete is brought to the construction site with the help of a truck mixer. Once obtained locally, it can be used directly without further treatment. Ready-mix concrete is very precise and special concrete can be designed based on the specification with the highest quality. The production of these concretes requires a centralized mixing plant. These systems are set up at an adjustable distance from the construction site. If the transportation is too long, it will lead to concrete setting. Such time delay problems are solved through the use of retarders that retard setting.For more information, see:Batching, mixing, transporting and handling of ready-mixed concrete
10. Polymer concrete
Compared to conventional concrete, polymer concrete binds the aggregate with polymer instead of cement. The manufacture of polymer concrete will help reduce the volume of voids in the aggregate. Therefore, this reduces the amount of polymer needed to bind the aggregates used. The aggregates are therefore classified and mixed accordingly in order to achieve a minimum of cavities and thus maximum density.This type of concrete has several categories:
- Polymer impregnated concrete
- polymer cement concrete
- Partly impregnated
Also read:Polymer impregnated concrete - Applications and properties of polymers in concrete
11. High strength concrete
Concretes with a strength of more than 40 MPa can be called high strength concrete. This increase in resistance is achieved by lowering the water-cement ratio even below 0.35.File:Properties and differences between normal concrete and high strength concreteCalcium hydroxide crystals, which due to their strength properties are the product of paramount importance during hydration, are reduced by the addition of silica fume. In terms of performance, high strength concrete has less to do in terms of workability, which is a problem.
12. High performance concrete
These concretes meet a certain standard, but are in no way restricted in their durability. It should be noted that all high strength concretes can be of the high performance concrete type. But not all high-performance concrete (HPC) is high-strength concrete. The standards to which high-performance concrete conforms are listed below:
- Gaining strength at an early age
- Simple concreting.
- Permeability and Density Factors
- heat of hydration
- Long life and durability
- Mechanical properties of toughness and service life.
- environmental concerns
Also read:High-strength, high-performance concrete materials and differences
13. Self-compacting concrete
Once placed, the concrete mix compacts under its own weight and is considered self-compacting concrete. No separate vibration should be provided. This mixture has higher workability. The decrease value will be between 650 and 750. Due to the better workability, this concrete is also called flow concrete. In areas with heavy rebar, self-compacting concrete works best.
The type of concrete differs in the way it is applied to the surface to be poured. With the help of a nozzle, concrete is poured over the prepared frame or shell formwork. Because the firing occurs at a higher air pressure, the placement and densification processes occur simultaneously.Also read:what is shooting Procedures, applications and advantages of gunting
15. Permeable concrete
Permeable or permeable concretes are concretes designed to allow the passage of water. When designed, these types of concrete have voids of 15-20% of the concrete volume. Permeable concrete is created by mixing methods, performance, application methods, etc. Water issues remain. Rainwater is channeled through these permeable concrete ceilings and gets into the groundwater. This solves most drainage problems.
16. Vacuum concrete
Concrete with a water content greater than the required amount is poured into the formwork. The excess water is then removed using a vacuum pump without waiting for the concrete to harden. Thus, the concrete structure or platform is ready for use sooner than with normal construction technology. These concretes reach their compressive strength of 28 days within 10 days and the compressive strength of these structures is 25% higher than conventional types of concrete.Also read:Vacuum Concrete: Techniques, Equipment and Benefits
17. Pumped concrete
One of the main properties of the concrete used in large megastructures, especially in the construction of skyscrapers, is the ability to transport concrete to height. Therefore, one of these readily pumpable concrete properties results in a pumpable concrete structure. The concrete used for pumping must have sufficient workability so that it can be easily transported through the pipeline. The pipe used is a rigid or flexible hose that will deliver the concrete to the desired area. The concrete used must be of a liquid nature, containing sufficient fine material and water to fill the voids. The finer the material used, the greater the control achieved in the mix. The granulation of the coarse aggregate used must be continuous.Also read:What is pumped concrete? Types of concrete pumps and selection
18. Stamped concrete
Tamped concrete is an architectural concrete that can be used to create realistic patterns similar to natural stone, granite and tiles using professional pad printing. These impressions are made on the concrete in the plastic state. The various coloring and texture work will eventually result in a finish very similar to the more expensive natural stones. An improved cosmetic appearance can be achieved by a stamped surface in a cost-effective manner. This is used in the construction of driveways, interior floors and patios.Also read:What is stamped concrete? Properties, methods and procedures for stamping concrete.
This is a type of concrete in which cement is replaced with lime. The main use of this product is on floors, domes and vaults. These different cements have many environmental and health benefits. These products are renewable and easy to clean.
Asphalt concrete is a composite material, a mixture of aggregate and asphalt, commonly used for paving roads, parking lots, airports, and as the core of dams. Asphalt concrete is also called asphalt, asphalt or pavement in North America and asphalt or bituminous macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
These are concretes that are placed and compacted with the help of earthmoving equipment such as heavy rollers. This concrete is mainly used for excavation and backfill purposes. These concretes have lower cement and filler content for the area required. After compaction, these concretes offer high density and eventually cure into a strong monolithic block.
22. Fast setting concrete
As the name suggests, these concretes become resilient within a few hours of being made. This facilitates the removal of the formwork and thus the construction of the building is completed quickly. These have a very wide application in road repair as they can be reused after a few hours.
Recycled glass can be used as an aggregate in concrete. This is how we get a concrete of modern times, vitreous concrete. This concrete increases the aesthetic appeal of the concrete. They also offer long-term durability and better thermal insulation.For more information, see:Concrete - Definition, Classes, Constituents, Manufacture, Construction and Items
How many types of concrete are used in construction? ›
Typically, there are twenty-four different types of concrete used in the building and construction industry depending on the type of construction.What type of concrete is used in construction? ›
This form of concrete is widely used in industry and modern construction. Reinforced concrete gets its strength through the help of wires, steel rods or cables that are placed in the concrete before it sets.
It's a vital resource for construction and civil engineering. Our roads, overpasses and bridges are all laid with concrete. Our parking lots and parking structures are built with it. Even buildings made with steel, glass and wood are built upon a concrete foundation.How many types of concrete are there? ›
Concrete is made of different materials that are combined together to create a strong and durable material. There are three different types of concrete: Portland cement, aggregate, and water.What are the 10 types of cement? ›
- Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) Ordinary Portland cement is the most widely used type of cement manufactured and used worldwide. ...
- Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) ...
- Rapid-hardening cement. ...
- Extra-rapid-hardening cement. ...
- Quick-setting cement. ...
- Low-heat cement. ...
- Sulfate-resisting cement. ...
- Blast furnace slag cement.
100722 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Portland Cement Type III is a low-alkali, special purpose hydraulic cement used to make concrete for a variety of building construction, repairs, grouts, or mortar applications where higher early strength than Type I-II Portland is needed.What is Type 4 concrete used for? ›
Type IV cement generates less heat during hydration and curing than ordinary Type I portland cement. When conducting mass pours or casting large-volume concrete products, Type IV cement is often used to lessen the amount of heat generated and reduce the risk of flash setting or thermal shock.Which concrete is best for construction? ›
However, for long-lasting construction, blended cement variants such as Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Slag Cement (PSC) and/or Composite Cement (CC) should be preferred as they offer increased durability and resistance to various elements affecting construction quality.Why are there different types of concrete? ›
Different types of concrete are produced based on the constituent material, mix design, the method of construction, area of application, form of hydration reaction.What is concrete and its application? ›
Concrete is the most commonly used man-made material on earth. It is an important construction material used extensively in buildings, bridges, roads and dams. Its uses range from structural applications, to paviours, kerbs, pipes and drains.
What are common types of concrete? ›
Different construction needs demand a variety of concrete types, such as plain concrete, precast concrete, prestressed concrete, ready mix concrete, air-entrained concrete, high-density concrete, lightweight concrete, reinforced concrete, stamped concrete, self-consolidating concrete, and shotcrete.What is the most common type of concrete? ›
1. Normal strength concrete. Normal strength concrete, or “regular” concrete, is the most common type of concrete with a basic mix of cement, aggregates, and water.How many basic types of concrete are there *? ›
Typically, there are twenty-four different types of concrete used in the building and construction industry depending on the type of construction.What is Grade 10 concrete used for? ›
Strength: 10 Newtons after 28 days.
This concrete is generally used for non-structural construction elements like patio slabs and pathways.
7. How many basic types of concrete are there? Explanation: Depending on the kind of construction, there are typically twenty-four distinct types of concrete used in the building and construction business. 8.What are the 4 types of cement? ›
- Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) ...
- Portland Slag cement. ...
- Portland Pozzolana cement.
- White cement. ...
- Sulphate resisting cement. ...
- Low heat Portland cement. ...
- Rapid hardening cement.
Type I is a general purpose portland cement suitable for most uses. Type II is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate. Type II(MH) is a moderately sulfate resistant cement that also generates moderate heat during curing.What is Type 2 cement used for? ›
Type 2 - Is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate, or when heat build-up is a concern. Type 3 - High early strength. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods.What is Type 1 Type 2 cement? ›
Type I cement is general purpose, and Type II is for moderate sulfate resistance and moderate heat of hydration. Type I cement does not have specified limits on several chemical compounds and has the same limits as Type II for some others.What is the strongest concrete? ›
Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a cementitious, concrete material that has a minimum specified compressive strength of 17,000 pounds per square inch (120 MPa) with specified durability, tensile ductility and toughness requirements; fibers are generally included in the mixture to achieve specified requirements ...
What type of concrete is best for driveway? ›
Portland Cement: Portland cement is a material commonly used to create concrete. It acts much like a strong glue, providing a reliable bond that makes it a popular choice for laying driveways and pathways.What is the most durable concrete? ›
White cement outlasts other cements in terms of durability. Because, given its many characteristics, it is particularly capable of withstanding extremely high temperatures.What is C 25 concrete? ›
C25 means the concrete mix has a minimum compressive strength of 25 newtons, 28 days after the concrete has been poured. The C stands for concrete, and the number indicates the strength of the concrete.What is the new type of concrete? ›
PLC, also known as Type 1L cement, is an innovative product that is reshaping how those in the construction industry use concrete. It's a type of blended cement that contains between 5 and 15% limestone. The product itself performs the same as standard concrete but it comes with great benefits.What are examples of concrete? ›
Concrete examples are specific, real-life examples used to illustrate an idea. They can be useful in helping participants grasp abstract concepts because they present the conceptual elements in a recognizable context. Concrete examples can be verbal descriptions, stories, actual objects (realia), and models.What are the main applications of reinforced concrete? ›
Reinforced concrete is used for construction on a large scale, such as bridges, dams, piers, tall buildings and stadiums. It is most commonly used in domestic construction for the footings and foundations of smaller everyday dwellings.Which cement is most commonly used in construction? ›
Portland cement is the most commonly used cement for construction purposes.Which concrete is best for slab? ›
The Best Type Of Cement For Concrete Slabs
Different types of cement are used to construct concrete slabs, but the best would be Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC). People use PPC to produce concrete for homes, residential areas, and schools. PPC is made of cement clinker (77%), gypsum (3-5%), and fly-ash (20%).
- Reinforced Concrete.
- Lightweight Concrete.
- High-Strength Concrete.
- High-Performance Concrete.
- Precast Concrete.
Type V cement is used in concrete products where extreme sulfate resistance is necessary. Coastal structures, piers, underwater tunnels, submerged structures, foundations, roadways and transportation products are all common applications for Type V cement.
What are the 6 types of cement? ›
- Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) ...
- Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) ...
- Rapid Hardening Cement. ...
- Extra Rapid Hardening Cement. ...
- Low Heat Cement. ...
- Sulfates Resisting Cement. ...
- Quick Setting Cement. ...
- Blast Furnace Slag Cement.
Normal strength concrete, or “regular” concrete, is the most common type of concrete with a basic mix of cement, aggregates, and water.What is Type 2 concrete used for? ›
Cement type 2 is usually hardened more slowly than cement type 1, and it also produces less heat in the setting. This type of cement is used in massive buildings so that when the concrete is set, they produce less heat and do not limit the mass of concrete placing.What is Type 1 concrete used for? ›
This type of cement is used to build sidewalks, pave the roads, build reinforced concrete bridges, railroads, reservoirs, water pipes and produce mixed mortar to economize.What are the different types of concrete forms? ›
- Wood Forms for Concrete Slabs. ...
- Concrete Wall Forms. ...
- Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs) ...
- Foam and Decorative Concrete Forms.
Portland cement is the most commonly used cement for construction purposes. It is made from 25% silica, 60% lime and 5% alumina, apart from iron and gypsum.What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 3 cement? ›
A.: The main difference between Type I and III cements is fineness. Type III is ground finer. The greater fineness speeds cement hydration because there's more cement surface area that comes in contact with water. A faster hydration rate speeds strength development during the first 7 days of curing.What is Type II vs Type III cement? ›
In other words, Type III cement has a high heat of hydration coupled with the rapid initial strength gain. Type I reacts much more slowly and the heat of hydration is considerably less. Type II cement is engineered to have a moderate heat of hydration.What are the 5 types of portland cement? ›
Five types of portland cement are standardized in the United States by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): ordinary (Type I), modified (Type II), high-early-strength (Type III), low-heat (Type IV), and sulfate-resistant (Type V).